Scanning analog materials such as photographic prints, negatives, and slides does not create "born digital" images, but there are some useful concepts in the literature. It should be noted, however, that some artists use scanners to create born-digital images.

Federal Agencies Digitization Guidelines Initiative (FADGI)

Technical Guidelines for Digitizing Cultural Heritage Materials Creation of Raster Image Files (September 2016) supersedes Technical Guidelines for Digitizing Cultural Heritage Materials: Creation of Raster Image Master Files (August 2010) and Technical Guidelines for Digitizing Archival Materials for Electronic Access: Creation of Production Master Files - Raster Images (June 2004).


"Metamorfoze is the Dutch National Programme for the Preservation of Paper Heritage, a co-operation between the National Library of the Netherlands and the National Archives. It is financed on a structural basis by the Ministry of Education, Culture and Science."

van Dormolen, Hans. Metamorfoze Preservation Imaging Guidelines.The Hague: National Library of the Netherlands, January 2012.
The Metamorfoze Preservation Imaging Guidelines are input oriented and relate exclusively to the image quality and metadata of the first file. All the desired output (derivatives) intended for print and/or the Internet can be made from this first file. In these guidelines this first file is referred to as the Preservation Master."