American Society of Media Photographers

In August of 2007 the United States Library of Congress, through its National Digital Information Infrastructure and Preservation Program (NDIIPP), awarded funds to the American Society of Media Photographers (ASMP) for its "Digital Photography Best Practices and Workflow" (dpBestflow®) project. The purpose of dpBestflow® is twofold:

  • "To create guidelines for refined production workflows, archiving methods, and best practices for digital photography based on a variety of capture methods and intended image use. The guidelines will be developed on the basis of research, analysis of software products and other tools targeted at professional photographers."
  • "To publish the dpBestflow® as a website open to the public. The adoption of the dpBestflow® guidelines will be promoted to the professional photography community and the public through programming at industry trade shows and a nationwide series of training events at ASMP chapters, trade shows, and educational institutions."

International Imaging Industry Association

The not-for-profit International Imaging Industry Association (I3A) "is the largest imaging industry group worldwide. I3A's member companies from around the world are dedicated to developing and promoting the adoption of open industry standards, addressing environmental issues and providing a voice for the industry that will ultimately benefit all users. I3A is the product of the merger of the Digital Imaging Group (DIG) and the Photographic and Imaging Manufacturers Association (PIMA), with almost 60 years of combined imaging industry leadership."

At one point, I3 had IT10 and WG18 committees to develop standards for Electronic Still Picture Imaging.

The scope of the I3A/IT10 committee includes specifying storage media, device interfaces, and image formats for electronic still picture imaging. The committee also works on standardizing measurement methods, performance ratings for devices and media, and definitions of technical terms. WG18 focused its efforts on standards development in the following areas:
  • Device interface requirements
  • Specification of image processing methodology for electronic still photography image data
  • Rating and classifying performance characteristics of devices and materials used in electronic still photography
  • Development of recommended practices for assurance of image integrity and security

Japan Electronics and Information Technology Industries Association

Design rule for Camera File system (DCF) is the Japan Electronics and Information Technology Industries Association (JEITA) industry standard (specification number CP-3461) that defines the file format and file system for specific digital camera models, including file naming method, character set, file format, and metadata format. The file format is based upon the Exif 2.2 specification.

Society for Imaging Science and Technology

The Society for Imaging Science and Technology is an international non-profit organization whose goal is to keep members aware of the latest scientific and technological developments in the field of imaging through conferences, journals and other publications. We focus on imaging in all its aspects, with particular emphasis on silver halide, digital printing, electronic imaging, photofinishing, image preservation, image assessment, pre-press technologies and hybrid imaging systems."

Universal Photographic Digital Imaging Guidelines (UPDIG) Working Group

The UPDIG Working Group is an "ad-hoc industry consortium of non-profit associations . . . along with allied trade groups and manufacturers . . . and digital imaging professionals . . . dedicated to promoting worldwide standards in the commercial application of digital imaging." (Quotation taken from an earlier UPDIG Webpage.)

The UPDIG guidelines aim to clarify issues affecting accurate reproduction and management of digital images. These guidelines were created to establish photographic standards and practices for photographers, designers, printers, and image distributors. The guidelines cover Digital Asset Management, Color Profiling, Metadata, and Photography Workflow.

Version 4.0 of the guidelines represents the industry consensus as of Sept 22, 2008. The guidelines were prepared by the UPDIG Coalition, with the help of many digital imaging professionals, software vendors, and hardware manufacturers. The UPDIG Coalition is dedicated to promoting standards for photographic digital imaging.

According to the UPDIG Quickguide, its Main Principals are:
  • Digital images should look the same as they transfer between devices, platforms and vendors.
  • Digital images should be prepared in the correct resolution, size and sharpness for the device(s) on which they will be viewed or printed.
  • Digital images should have embedded metadata that conform to the IPTC and PLUS standards, making them searchable while providing relevant rights and usage information – including creator’s name, contact information and a description of licensed uses.
  • Digital images should be protected from accidental erasure or corruption and stored carefully to ensure their availability to future generations.

The group published "Universal Photographic Digital Imaging Guidelines" (version 3 published September 2007), a separate set of standards "to improve the 'hand-off' of digital image files from photographers to end users of all types."

Digital Images Archiving Study

The Arts and Humanities Data Service, a UK national service funded by the Joint Information Systems Committee, produced a final report in 2006 on the practical issues related to the preservation of digital images. The lengthy report discusses the nature of digital images (i.e., content, format, size, metadata requirements), and the potential preservation methods to ensure long term access and use. This report recognizes that the majority of research into the preservation of digital images has focused upon the theoretical and has been general in nature. Topics covered in this 155 page report: User Requirements, Properties of Digital Images, Preservation Methods, Images Metadata, Life Cycle and Organizational Models, and Assessing Preservation Costs.

"Raw Capture, Linear Gamma, and Exposure." Adobe white paper by Bruce Fraser, 2004. Explains the major difference between in the way sensors and film react to light exposure, and how JPEGs differ from raw formats.